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滴定分析中最重要的步骤之一标准滴定溶液的制备

内容摘要:标准溶液是化学实验室用于分析工作的标准试剂的总称,标准滴定溶液是确定了准确浓度用于滴定分析的一种溶液。如何制备标准滴定溶液并保证其浓度的准确性是保证试样分析结果准确性的基础。

BIAOZHUNRONGYESHIHUAXUESHIYANSHIYONGYUFENXIGONGZUODEBIAOZHUNSHIJIDEZONGCHENG,BIAOZHUNDIDINGRONGYESHIQUEDINGLEZHUNQUENONGDUYONGYUDIDINGFENXIDEYIZHONGRONGYE。RUHEZHIBEIBIAOZHUNDIDINGRONGYEBINGBAOZHENGQINONGDUDEZHUNQUEXINGSHIBAOZHENGSHIYANGFENXIJIEGUOZHUNQUEXINGDEJICHU。

BIAOZHUNRONGYERUHEPEIZHI?

ZHIBEIBIAOZHUNRONGYEGUOCHENGZHONGXUZHUZHONGNAXIEWENTI?

BIAOZHUNDIDINGRONGYEZHIBEIWUCHASHISHENME?

RUHEXIAOCHUWUCHA?XIAOBIANWEINIYIYIJIEDU!

DUISHIJIHESHUIDEYAOQIU

(1)SHIJIDECHUNDUYINGZAIFENXICHUNYISHANG,QIEXINGZHIWENDING,PEICHENGDERONGYEBUYIHUIFAHEQIQITABIANHUA。BIAODINGBIAOZHUNRONGYEBIXUYONGJIZHUNSHIJI。

(2)PEIZHIBIAOZHUNRONGYEDESHIYANYONGSHUIYINGFUHEGB/T 6682ZHONGSANJISHUIDEGUIGE。

BIAOZHUNRONGYEDEPEIZHIYUBIAODING

BIAOZHUNRONGYEZAIPEIZHIYUBIAODINGGUOCHENGZHONGXUZHUZHONGDEWENTIYOUNAXIE?

(1)RONGYEPEIZHIZHONGSUOYONGDESHUI,ZAIMEIYOUZHUMINGQITAYAOQIUSHI,YINGFUHEGB/T 6682ZHONGSANJISHUIGUIGE。

(2)BIAODINGRONGYEHEPEIZHIJIZHUNRONGYESUOYONGSHIJIWEIRONGLIANGFENXIJIZHUNSHIJI。PEIZHIYIBANRONGYESUOYONGSHIJICHUNDUBUDIYUFENXICHUN。

(3)RONGYEPEIZHIZHONGSHIYONGDEFENXITIANPING、DIDINGGUAN、DANBIAOXIANRONGLIANGPINGJIDANBIAOXIANXIGUANDENGXUANJILIANGJIANDINGGUICHENGYAOQIUJIANDINGHUOXIAOZHUN。DANBIAOXIANRONGLIANGPING、DANBIAOXIANXIGUANYINGYOURONGLIANGXIAOZHENGYINZI。

(4)CHENGLIANGGONGZUOJIZHUNSHIJIDEZHILIANGXIAOYUHUODENGYU0.5gSHI,ANJINGQUEZHI0.01mgCHENGLIANG;DAYU0.5gSHI,ANJINGQUEZHI0.1mgCHENGLIANG。

(5)BIAODINGBIAOZHUNDIDINGRONGYENONGDUSHI,XULIANGRENJINXINGSHIYAN,FENBIEZUOSIPINGXING,MEIRENSIPINGXINGBIAODINGJIEGUOXIANGDUIJICHABUDEDAYUXIANGDUIZHONGFUXINGLINJIEJICHA0.15%,LIANGRENGONGBAPINGXINGBIAODINGJIEGUOXIANGDUIJICHABUDEDAYUXIANGDUIZHONGFUXINGLINJIEJICHA0.18%。

(6)ZAIYUNSUANGUOCHENGZHONGBAOLIU5WEIYOUXIAOSHUZI,QULIANGRENBAPINGXINGBIAODINGJIEGUODEPINGJUNZHIWEIBIAODINGJIEGUO,BAOCHUJIEGUOQUSIWEIYOUXIAOSHUZI。

(7)ZHIBEIBIAOZHUNDIDINGRONGYEDENONGDUYINGZAIGUIDINGNONGDUDE±5%FANWEIYINEI。

JUGELIZI:

(YI)QINGYANGHUANABIAOZHUNRONGYEDEPEIZHIHEBIAODING

YI.MUDEYAOQIU

1.ZHANGWONaOHBIAOZHUNRONGYEDEPEIZHIHEBIAODING。

2.ZHANGWOJIANSHIDIDINGGUANDESHIYONG,ZHANGWOFENTAIZHISHIJIDEDIDINGZHONGDIANDEPANDUAN。

ER.FANGFAYUANLI

NaOHYOUHENQIANGDEXISHUIXINGHEXISHOUKONGQIZHONGDECO2,YINER,SHISHOUNaOHZHONGCHANGHANYOUNa2CO3。

FANYINGFANGCHENGSHI:2NaOH+CO2→Na2CO3+H2O

YOUYUTANSUANNADECUNZAI,DUIZHISHIJIDESHIYONGYINGXIANGJIAODA,YINGSHEFACHUQU。

CHUQUNa2CO3ZUITONGCHANGDEFANGFASHIJIANGNaOHXIANPEICHENGBAOHERONGYE(YUE52%,W/W),YOUYUNa2CO3ZAIBAOHENaOHRONGYEZHONGJIHUBURONGJIE,HUIMANMANCHENDIANCHULAI,YINCI,KEYONGBAOHEQINGYANGHUANARONGYE,PEIZHIBUHANNa2CO3DENaOHRONGYE。DAINa2CO3CHENDIANHOU,KEXIQUYIDINGLIANGDESHANGQINGYE,XISHIZHISUOXUNONGDUJIKE。CIWAI,YONGLAIPEIZHINaOHRONGYEDEZHENGLIUSHUI,YEYINGJIAREZHUFEIFANGLENG,CHUQUQIZHONGDECO2。

BIAODINGJIANRONGYEDEJIZHUNWUZHIHENDUO,CHANGYONGDEYOUCAOSUAN(H2C2O4?2H2O)、BENJIASUAN(C6H5COOH)HELINBENERJIASUANQINGJIA(C6H4COOHCOOK)DENG。ZUICHANGYONGDESHILINBENERJIASUANQINGJIA,DIDINGFANYINGRUXIA:

C6H4COOHCOOK+NaOH→C6H4COONaCOOK+H2O

※JILIANGDIANSHIYOUYURUOSUANYANDESHUIJIE,RONGYECHENGRUOJIANXING,YINGCAIYONGFENTAIZUOWEIZHISHIJI。

SAN.YIQIHESHIJI

YIQI:JIANSHIDIDINGGUAN(50mL)、RONGLIANGPING、ZHUIXINGPING、FENXITIANPING、TAICHENG。

SHIJI:LINBENERJIASUANQINGJIA(JIZHUNSHIJI)、QINGYANGHUANAGUTI(A.R)、10g/LFENTAIZHISHIJI:1gFENTAIRONGYUSHILIANGYICHUNZHONG,ZAIXISHIZHI100mL。

SI.CAOZUOBUZHOU

1.0.1mol/L NaOHBIAOZHUNRONGYEDEPEIZHI

YONGXIAOSHAOBEIZAITAICHENGSHANGCHENGQU120gGUTINaOH,JIA100mLSHUI,ZHENYAOSHIZHIRONGJIECHENGBAOHERONGYE,LENGQUEHOUZHURUJUYIXISULIAOPINGZHONG,MIBI,FANGZHISHURI,CHENGQINGHOUBEIYONG。

ZHUNQUEXIQUSHANGSHURONGYEDESHANGCENGQINGYE5.6mLDAO1000HAOSHENGWUERYANGHUATANDEZHENGLIUSHUIZHONG,YAOYUN,TIESHANGBIAOQIAN。

2.0.1mol/L NaOHBIAOZHUNRONGYEDEBIAODING

JIANGJIZHUNLINBENERJIASUANQINGJIAJIARUGANZAODECHENGLIANGPINGNEI,YU105~110℃HONGZHIHENGZHONG,YONGJIANLIANGFAZHUNQUECHENGQULINBENERJIASUANQINGJIAYUE0.6000KE,ZHIYU250mLZHUIXINGPINGZHONG,JIA50mLWUCO2ZHENGLIUSHUI,WENRESHIZHIRONGJIE,LENGQUE,JIAFENTAIZHISHIJI2~3DI,YONGYUBIAODINGDE0.1mol/LNaOHRONGYEDIDING,ZHIDAORONGYECHENGFENHONGSE,BANFENZHONGBUTUNSE,TONGSHIZUOKONGBAISHIYAN,YAOQIUZUOSANGEPINGXINGYANGPIN。

WU.JIEGUOJIESUAN

NaOHBIAOZHUNRONGYENONGDUJISUANGONGSHI:

m

CNaOH = (V1-V2)×0.2042

SHIZHONG:

m---LINBENERJIASUANQINGJIADEZHILIANG,g

V1---QINGYANGHUANABIAOZHUNDIDINGRONGYEYONGLIANG,mL

V2---KONGBAISHIYANZHONGQINGYANGHUANABIAOZHUNDIDINGRONGYEYONGLIANG,mL

0.2042---YU1mmolQINGYANGHUANABIAOZHUNDIDINGRONGYEXIANGDANGDEJIZHUNLINBENERJIASUANQINGJIADEZHILIANG,g

(ER)YANSUANBIAOZHUNRONGYEDEPEIZHIHEBIAODING

YI.MUDEYAOQIU

1.ZHANGWOJIANLIANGFAZHUNQUECHENGQUJIZHUNWUDEFANGFA。

2.ZHANGWODIDINGCAOZUOBINGXUEHUIZHENGQUEPANDUANDIDINGZHONGDIANDEFANGFA。

3.XUEHUIPEIZHIHEBIAODINGYANSUANBIAOZHUNRONGYEDEFANGFA。

ER.YUANLI

YOUYUNONGYANSUANRONGYIHUIFA,BUNENGYONGTAMENLAIZHIJIEPEIZHIJUYOUZHUNQUENONGDUDEBIAOZHUNRONGYE,YINCI,PEIZHIHClBIAOZHUNRONGYESHI,ZHINENGXIANPEIZHICHENGJINSINONGDUDERONGYE,RANHOUYONGJIZHUNWUZHIBIAODINGTAMENDEZHUNQUENONGDU,HUOZHEYONGLINGYIYIZHIZHUNQUENONGDUDEBIAOZHUNRONGYEDIDINGGAIRONGYE,ZAIGENJUTAMENDETIJIBIJISUANGAIRONGYEDEZHUNQUENONGDU。

BIAODINGHClRONGYEDEJIZHUNWUZHICHANGYONGDESHIWUSHUINa2CO3,QIFANYINGSHIRUXIA:

Na2CO3+2HCl →2NaCl+CO2+H2O

DIDINGZHIFANYINGWANQUANSHI,RONGYEpHWEI3.89,TONGCHANGXUANYONGXIUJIAFENLV—JIAJIHONGHUNHEYEZUOZHISHIJI。

SAN.SHIJI

1.NONGYANSUAN(MIDU1.19)

2.XIUJIAFENLV-JIAJIHONGHUNHEYEZHISHIJI:LIANGQU30mLXIUJIAFENLVYICHUNRONGYE(2g/L),JIARU20mLJIAJIHONGYICHUNRONGYE(1g/L),HUNYUN。

SI.BUZHOU

1.0.1mol·L 1HClRONGYEDEPEIZHI

YONGLIANGTONGLIANGQUNONGYANSUAN9mL,DAORUYUXIANSHENGYOUSHILIANGSHUIDESHIJIPINGZHONG,JIASHUIXISHIZHI1000mL,YAOYUN,TIESHANGBIAOQIAN。

2.YANSUANRONGYENONGDUDEBIAODING

YONGJIANLIANGFAZHUNQUECHENGQUYUE0.15gZAI270~300℃GANZAOZHIHENGLIANGDEJIZHUNWUSHUITANSUANNA,ZHIYU250mLZHUIXINGPING,JIA50mLSHUISHIZHIRONGJIE,ZAIJIA10DIXIUJIAFENLV-JIAJIHONGHUNHEYEZHISHIJI,YONGPEIZHIHAODEHClRONGYEDIDINGZHIRONGYEYOULVSEZHUANBIANWEIZIHONGSE,ZHUFEI2min,LENGQUEZHISHIWEN,JIXUDIDINGZHIRONGYEYOULVSEBIANWEIANZISE。YOUNa2CO3DEZHONGLIANGJISHIJIXIAOHAODEHClRONGYEDETIJI,JISUANHClRONGYEDEZHUNQUENONGDU。

WU.ZHUYISHIXIANG

GANZAOZHIHENGZHONGDEWUSHUITANSUANNAYOUXISHIXING,YINCIZAIBIAODINGZHONGJINGMICHENGQUJIZHUNWUSHUITANSUANNASHI,YICAIYONG“JIANLIANGFA”CHENGQU,BINGYINGXUNSUJIANGCHENGLIANGPINGJIAGAIMIBI。

ZAIDIDINGGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDEERYANGHUATAN,SHIZHONGDIANBIANSEBUGOUMINRUI。YINCI,ZAIRONGYEDIDINGJINXINGZHILINJINZHONGDIANSHI,YINGJIANGRONGYEJIAREZHUFEI,YICHUQUERYANGHUATAN,DAILENGZHISHIWENHOU,ZAIJIXUDIDING。

HAIYOUYANGHUAHAIYUANBIAOZHUNRONGYEDEPEIZHIHEBIAODINGNI!

YANGHUAHAIYUANDIDINGFASHIYIYANGHUAHAIYUANFANYINGWEIJICHUDERONGLIANGFENXIFANGFA。YOUYUYANGHUAHAIYUANFANYINGLEIXINGBUTONG,SUOYIBIAOZHUNRONGYEBIJIAODUO。GAOMENGSUANJIAFAYIKMnO4WEIBIAOZHUNRONGYE;ZHONGGESUANJIAFAYIK2Cr2O7WEIBIAOZHUNRONGYEDENG。XIAMIANZHEZHONGJIANGYIXIAGAOMENGSUANJIABIAOZHUNSHENRONGYEDEPEIZHIHEBIAODING。

①GAOMENGSUANJIASHIYIGEQIANGYANGHUAJI,YISHOUHAIYUANXINGZAZHIHEYOUJIZAZHIYINGXIANG,SUOYIKMnO4NONGRONGYEPEIZHIHOUYINGJIAREZHUFEI,SHIGEZHONGHAIYUANWUZHIWANQUANYANGHUA,ZAILVQUZAZHI,JINGZHI15TIAN,CUNFANGYUZONGSEPINGZHONG。

②GAOMENGSUANJIABIAOZHUNRONGYEDESUANDUYAOSHIDANG。SUANDUYINGBAOCHIZAI1mol/LZUOYOU,SUANDUGUODI,ZEMnO-4BUFENHAIYUANWEIMnO2,XICHUZONGSECHENDIAN,GUOGAOSHIJIZHUNNa2C2O4FENJIE。

③WENDUYAOSHIDANG。JIANGRONGYEWENDUJIAREDAO65℃ZUOYOUKEJIASUFANYING。DANGWENDUCHAOGUO90℃SHI,ZAISUANXINGRONGYEZHONGHUIZAOCHENGKMnO4、C2O42-FENJIE;WENDUDIYU60℃SHIFANYINGSUDUTAIMAN。

④DIDINGSUDUYAOSHIDANGZHANGWO。DIDINGKAISHISHIKMnO4FANYINGHENMAN,YINGDENGDIYIDIHONGSEXIAOSHIHOUZAIJIADIERDI。RONGYEZHONGCHANSHENGLEMn2+HOU,YOUYUMn2+DEZICUIHUAZUOYONG,DIDINGSUDUKEJIAKUAI,DANBUNENGCHENGXIAN,YIFANGZHIMnO-4FENJIE。DIDINGDAOHONGSEZAI30MIAONEIBUXIAOSHIWEIZHI,ZUOWEIZHONGDIAN。

BIAOZHUNRONGYEBAOCUN

(1)BIAOZHUNRONGYEYINGZAISHIWEN20±5℃XIACUNFANG,BUYAOFANGZAIYOUJIARESHEBEIDEFANGJIANLI。

(2)BIAOZHUNRONGYEBUYINGFANGZAIYOUSUANJIANHEYANGHUAHAIYUANXINGYICHUQIDEHUANJINGZHONG,YINGZAIPINGSAISHANGJIAZHUANGGUOLVKONGQIZHONGZAZHIDEBAOHUGUAN。SUANBIAOZHUNRONGYEJIASUANSHIMIANBAOHUGUANYIXISHOUJIANXINGQITI;JIANBIAOZHUNRONGYEJIAJIANSHIMIANBAOHUGUAN,YIXISHOUSUANXINGQITI。

(3)YIHUIFA,JIANGUANGYIFENJIEDEBIAOZHUNRONGYEYINGZHUANGZAIZONGSEPINGZHONG,BIGUANGCUNFANG。

(4)BUNENGYONGXIYEGUANZHIJIECONGBIAOZHUNRONGYEZHONGXIQUBIAOZHUNYE。

(5)BIAOZHUNRONGYEZAICHANGWENXIABAOCUNBUDECHAOGUOLIANGGEYUE,YANGHUAHAIYUANRONGYEYIBANYIGEYUE。

ZONGZHI,BIAOZHUNRONGYEZAIPEIZHI、BIAODING、BAOCUNHESHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONG,YAORENZHENANGUIDINGJINXINGGEHUANJIEDEGONGZUO,CAINENGBAOZHENGRONGYENONGDUDEZHUNQUEXING,YIBAOZHENGSHIYANJIEGUODEZHENSHI、ZHUNQUE。

XIAOJIE

RONGLIANGFENXIFAZHONG,YIDIDINGFENXIYONGBIAOZHUNRONGYEDUISHIYANGZHONGYUCEZUFENJINXINGDIDING,GENJUBIAOZHUNRONGYEDEXIAOHAOLIANGHENONGDUJINXINGJIEGUOJISUAN。YINCIBIAOZHUNRONGYENONGDUDEZHUNQUEXINGDUICESHIJIEGUOYOUZHIJIEDEYINGXIANG。SUOYIZAIBIAOZHUNRONGYEDEPEIZHI、BIAODINGHESHIYONGZHONGYAOZHUYIZUNSHOUZHUYISHIXIANGE!

YISHANGNEIRONGJINGONGCANKAO,JUTIBIAOZHUNRONGYEPEIZHIJIDIDINGFANGFAQINGCANKAOGB/T 601-2016 HUAXUESHIJIBIAOZHUNDIDINGRONGYEDEZHIBEI!

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