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卡尔费休水分测定仪原理及选择

内容摘要:


YI. CHANPINJIESHAO

2.1SHUIFENCEDINGYIDEFENLEI

SHUIFENCEDINGYIZHUYAOSHISHIYANSHIYONGLAIDUISHENGCHANQIANYUANLIAO、SHENGCHANHOUCHENGPINZHILIANGBAKONG,YEYOUBUFENSHIDUISHENGCHANZHONGDEZHILIANGBAKONG。SUOYISHUIFENCEDINGYIZHUYAOSHIYINGYONGZAIGEXINGGEYEDEYANGPINSHUIFENHANLIANGJIANCEJIZHILIANGBAKONG。NEIMEWOMENSHIYANSHICHANGYONGDESHUIFENCEDINGYIZHUYAOFENWEI,JIAREFAHEKAERFEIXIUFANGFALIANGDALEIBIE

2.1 JIAREFASHUIFENCEDINGYI

JIAREFASHUIFENCEDINGYIYOUHONGWAISHUIFENCEDINGYI,LUSUSHUIFENCEDINGYI

2.1.1、HONGWAIXIAN/LUSUSHUIFENCEDINGYI

1、JIANCEYUANZE:

(1)YANGPINZHONGBUHANYOUCHUSHUIYIWAIDEHUIFAXINGWUZHI

(2)YANGPINZHONGYOUBURONGHUOZHENANRONGYUYOUJIRONGJIZHONGDEYANGPIN

2、WULIFASHUIFENCEDINGYIZHUYAOJIANCE:

FENMOZHUANG、KELIZHUANG、ZHANCHOUZHUANG、LIUTILEIWUZHI,LIRU:ZHONGZI、CAIZI、MIANFEN、ZHIZHANG、YAOMO、TURANG、FEISHUI、YANLIAO、TUOSHUISHUCAIDENG

3、HONGWAIXIANSHUIFENCEDINGYIYULUSUSHUIFENCEDINGYIDEQUBIE:

HONGWAI: JIAREJUNYUN,CHUANTONGJIAREFANGSHI,JIAOSHIHECESHIDUIWENDUMINGANDEYANGPIN,RUHANTANGLIANGJIAOGAODEYANGPIN

LUSU: SHENGWENKUAI,JIAREJUNYUN,XIAOLVGAO,JIENENGHUANBAO

2.1.2、KAERFEIXIUSHUIFENCEDINGYI

KAERFEIXIUSHUIFENCEDINGYIFENWEIRONGLIANGFAHEKULUNFALIANGZHONGYIQI

1. JIANJIE:

KAER·FEIXIUFAJIANCHENGFEIXIUFA,SHI1935NIANKAER·FEIXIU(KarlFj scher)TICHUDECEDINGSHUIFENDERONGLIANGFENXIFANGFA。FEIXIUFASHICEDINGWUZHISHUIFENDEGELEIHUAXUEFANGFAZHONG,DUISHUIZUIWEIZHUANYI、ZUIWEIZHUNQUEDEFANGFA。SUISHUJINGDIANFANGFADANJINGGUOJINNIANGAIJIN,TIGAOLEZHUNQUEDU,KUODALECELIANGFANWEI,YIBEILIEWEIXUDUOWUZHIZHONGSHUIFENCEDINGDEBIAOZHUNFANGFA。

2. HUAXUEFANYING

KAER?FEIXIUSHUIFENCEDINGFASHIYIZHONGFEISHUIRONGYEZHONGDEYANGHUAHAIYUANDIDINGFA, QIDIDINGDEJIBENYUANLISHIDIANYANGHUAERYANGHUALIUSHIXUYAOYIDINGLIANGDESHUICANYUFANYING,HUAXUEFANYINGFANGCHENGSHIRUXIA:

I2+SO2+2H2O → 2HI+H2SO4(2-1)

I2+SO2+H2O+3RN+R1OH → 2RNHI+RNSO4R1 (2-2)

KAERFEIXIUSHIJIZHONGHANYOUFENZIDIANERCHENGSHENHESE,DANGHANYOUSHUIDESHIJIHUOYANGPINJIARUHOU,YOUYUHUAXUEFANYING,SHENGCHENGJIAJILIUSUANHUAHEWU(RNSO4R1)ERSHIRONGYEBIANCHENGHUANGSE,YOUCIKEYONGMUCEFAPANDUANZHONGDIAN,JIYOUQIANHUANGSEBIANCHENGCHENGSE.DANSHIMUCEFAWUCHAJIAODAERQIEZAICEDINGYOUYANSEDEWUZHISHIHUIYUDAOMAFAN。 GUOJIABIAOZHUNDADOUGUIDINGYONG“YONGTINGFA”LAIPANDINGKASHIFANYINGDEZHONGDIAN,QIYUANLIWEI:ZAIFANYINGRONGYEZHONGCHARUSHUANGBODIANJI,ZAILIANGDIANJIZHIJIANJIASHANGYIGUDINGDEDIANYA,RUORONGJIZHONGYOUSHUICUNZAISHI,ZERONGYEZHONGBUHUIYOUDIANDUICUNZAI,RONGYEBUDAODIAN,DANGFANYINGDAODAZHONGDIANSHI,RONGYEZHONGCUNZAI I2 HE I-DIANDUI,JI:

2I- = I2+2e (2-3)

YINCI, RONGYEDEDAODIANXINGHUITURANZENGDA, ZAISHEYOUWAIJIADIANYADESHUANGBODIANJIZHIJIANDEDIANLIUZHITURANZENGDA,BINGQIEWENDINGZAIWOMENSHIXIANSHEDINGYIGEXINXIZHISHANGMIAN,JIKEPANDUANDAOLEDIDINGZHONGDIAN,JIQIBIANHUIZIDONGTINGZHIDIDING,CONGERTONGGUOXIAOHAOKAERFEIXIUSHIJIDETIJIJISUANCHUYANGPINDEHANSHUILIANG。

3. KAERFEISHIJIDEZUCHENG

DIAN I2

ERYANGHUALIU SO2

RONGJI JIACHUN

YOUJIJIAN BIDING(MIZUO)

4. YINGXIANGKAERFEIXIUDEJIGEYINSU

WUSHUIJIACHUNZUOWEIYANGPINDERONGJIEJI,SHIYONGFANWEIHENGUANG。YIBANDEYOUJIHUAHEWU、BAOHEHUOBUBAOHEDETANQINGHUAHEWUYIJIYIBANDEWUJIHUAHEWU、SUANXINGYANGHUAWU、BUFENYOUJIHEWUJIDEYANDOUNENGSHIYONG。

但是部分酮和醛类样品不能用甲醇反应。如发现反应不能中断,无终点,反应连续进行时,应该考虑到是否有副反应这个问题。当产生副反应时,其实只需要几分钟的反应,却一直进行。此时可用乙二醇甲醚代替甲醇。
PH值过高、样品碱性过高等,也会引起副反应,即连续反应,而无终点出现。此时,PH值过高可用缓冲溶液调节PH值,碱性过高加入甲苯酸、水杨酶,可缓和碱性溶液,但不能用醋酸。

YUDIANFASHENGFANYINGDEHUAHEWUBUNENGYONGKAERFEILAICESHI。

5. KAERFEIXIUSHUIFENCEDINGYIDETEDIAN

(1)SHIJIDUISHUIDEZUOYONGLINGMINXINGHEZHUANYIXINGGAO,SHIJIAOLIXIANGDESHUIFENCEDINGFANGFA。

(2)SHIYONGYUYUREYIFENJIEDEWUZHIHUOHANYOUHUIFAXINGCHENGFENDEGONGSHIPINDESHUIFENCEDING。

(3)KAERFEIXIUSHISHIJIBENSHENKEYIZUOWEIZHISHIJI,YEKEYONGYONGTINGDIDINGFAZHISHIZHONGDIAN。

(4)SHUYUFEISHUIRONGYEDEYANGHUAHAIYUANDIDINGFANGFA,SUOYIJUYOUYUDIANKEYIFASHENGFANYINGDEWUZHIBUSHIYONGBENFA。

(5)SHOUKONGQISHIDUDEYINGXIANGJIAODA,YINCIKONGQISHIDUDAHEYINYUTIANQIBUYIJINXING。(ZHUYIKONGZHIWENSHIDU)

6. SHIJIDEXUANZEYUBIAODING

ZHIYOUZHUNQUEZHIDAOWOMENSUOSHIYONGDEKFSHIJIDENONGDUHOU,WOMENCAINENGYOUXIAOHAODIDINGJIDETIJIHECHENGYANGLIANGQIUCHUYANGPINDEHANSHUILIANG。

YINGXIANGKAERFEIXIUSHIJINONGDUBIANHUADEZHUYAOYOUYIXIAJIGEYUANYIN :

? DIDINGJIDEHUAXUEWENDINGXINGHENDI,QIZHONGDEDIANHEERYANGHUALIUDOUSHIHENHUOPODEWUZHI,RONGYIHEQITAWUZHIFASHENGFAYING。

? DIDINGJIYIYOUJIHUIJIUHUIXISHOUKONGQIZHONGDESHUIFENERSHIZIJIDENONGDUJIANGDI,YINWEIQIZHONGDEJIACHUNXISHUIXINGJIQIANG。

? YINWEIRONGJIZHONG90%DEWUZHIWEIJIACHUNHUOYICHUN,SUOYIKFSHIJIZHONGCHUNDEMIDUDUIWENDUDEBIANHUAHENMINGAN,WENDUDEYIDIANSHENGGAOJIANGYINQISHIJINONGDUDEJIJUXIAJIANG,WENDUSHENGGAO1SHESHIDU,KEYISHINONGDUXIAJIANG0.1%。

? JISHIZHUANGSHIJIDERONGQIMIFENGCHENGDUFEICHANGHAO,SHIJIZHONGGEZUFENJIANRENGKENENGFASHENGFANYING。

KAERFEIXIUSHIJIDEBIAODING

? ERSHUIHEJIUSHISUANNABIAODING

QISHIKFSHIJIDEDIDINGYIJIBIAOZHUNWU,ZAIZHENGCHANGTIAOJIANXIA,GAIWUZHIHANYOU15.66%DESHUI,HENWENDINGERQIEBUXISHUIYEBUSHISHUI。DANSHIERSHUIHEJIUSHISUANNAZAIJIACHUNZHONGZHINENGHUANMANRONGJIEQIERONGJIEDUHENXIAO,SUOYISHIYONGQIANYINGBATAYANCHENGHENXIDEFENMO,ZAIDIDINGQIANYINGHUNHE2~3FENZHONG(BAOZHENGWANQUANRONGJIE),MEI40mlJIACHUNKERONGJIE140mgERSHUIHEJIUSHISUANNA(SHIWEN)。ZHUYIJINGCHANGGENGHUANRONGJI

? BIAOZHUNSHUIRONGYEBIAODING

JINGMICHENGDINGSHUIBIAOZHUNPIN1.0DAO1.5KE,YONGFANCHENGLIANGFAQUEDINGQIZHILIANG,DIDINGZHIZHONGDIAN。SUOYONGSHUIBIAOZHUNPINDELIANGYIBANYIXIAOHAO2DAO5HAOSHENGKASHIYEJIAOHESHI。DANSHISHUIBIAOZHUNPINBIJIAOGUISHIHEYUSUANKUANYUSHIYANSHIXUANYONG。

? QULIZISHUIBIAODING

YONGQULIZISHUIBIAODINGDIDINGJINONGDUXUYAODALIANGDELIANXIHEJINGQUEDESHIYANCAOZUOYIHUODEZHONGFUDEJINGQUEDEJIEGUO。YOUYUSHIYONGQULIZISHUILIANGFEICHANGXIAO(10μl~20μl),OURANWUCHAJIAODA。YINCITUIJIANJIUSHISUANERNAHUOSHUIBIAOZHUNLAIBIAODINGDIDINGYEDENONGDU。

KAERFEIXIUSHIJIDEXUANZE

1ANDIDINGDUXUANZE

YIBANSHIMIANSHANGCHUSHOUDEKAERFEIXIUSHIJIDEDIDINGDUYOU1mg/ml、2mg/ml、3-5mg/ml,HANSHUILIANGYUEDIDEYANGPINYINGGAIXUANZEDIDINGYUEXIAODESHIJI 。KULUNFASHIJIBUQUFENDIDINGDU。

DIDINGJIZHONGHANYOUDIAN、ERYANGHUALIU、MIZUO,RONGYUCHUNRONGYE。RONGJIKEYISHIJIACHUN,YEKEYIYONGYIRONGJIEYANGPINDERONGJIYUJIACHUNHUNHEZUORONGJI。SHIJIKEYICUNCHUYUELIANGNIAN,RUOSHIJICUNCHUZAIMIFENGPINGZHONG,DIDINGDUDAYUEMEINIANJIANXIAO0.5 mg/mL。SHISHOUDEDANZUFENSHIJIYOUSANZHONGNONGDUGUIGE:

5 mg/mL,SHIYONGYUHANSHUILIANG1000 ppm ~ 100 %DEYANGPIN,

2 mg/mL,适用于含水量< 1000 ppm的样品,

1 mg/mL,适用于含水量< 200 ppm的样品。

2 ANZHAOPEIFANGXUANZE

YOUDANZUFEN,SHUANGZUFEN,ZHUANYONGSHIJI,DANZUFENDIDINGDUXIAJIANGSUDUKUAI,DANSHIBIANYI,ERQIEDIDINGDUFANWEIDA;SHUANGZUFENSHIJIFANYINGSUDUKUAI,JIAGEGUI,DIDINGDUYOUXIAN;ZHUANYONGSHIJI,CESHIYIXIETESHUYANGPIN,RUQUANTONGZHUANYONGSHIJI;

7. KAERFEIXIUSHUIFENCEDINGYIDECELIANGGUOCHENG

CELIANGFANWEI:ANQUYANGLIANGDEDAXIAOKEYICELIANG1HAOKEDAO100%FANWEINEIDEHANSHUILIANG。

GENJUDIDINGRONGQIDAXIAODEBUTONG,KEYIZAIQIZHONGJIARU20DAO200HAOSHENGDEJIACHUN。JIACHUNSHIHANYOUSHUIFENDE,SUOYIWOMENYAOXIANYONGKFSHIJIJINXINGYUDIDING,RANGQIDADAOYIGEWENDINGDEZHI。RANHOUZAIYONGZHEIZHONG“GANZAO”LEDEJIACHUNZUOGONGZUOJIEZHIHERONGJI。JIANGYANGPINJIARUDAO“GANZAO”LEDEJIACHUNZHONG,QIDIDINGFANGFAHEYUDIDINGDEFANGFAYIYANG。YANGPINDEHANSHUILIANGKEYITONGGUOKFSHIJIDEXIAOHAOLIANGJISUANDEDAO。DANGDIYIGEYANGPINDIDINGWANZHIHOU,DIERGEYANGPINKEYIZHIJIEJIAJINQU,FANYINGBEIZHONGDERONGYEKEYIFANFUYINGYONG。DANGRAN,BEICEDEYANGPINXIANGHUZHIJIANBUNENGFASHENGFANYING。

SUANYANGPINSHUIFENHANLIANGDEGONGSHIWEI:

DUIYUBURONGYUJIACHUNDEYANGPINKEYIJIARUYIXIEZHURONGJILAIBANGZHUYANGPINRONGJIE,YIQUDEGENGHAODECESHIXIAOGUO。

ZHURONGJI:

RONGJI

BILI

YANGPIN

JIAXIANAN

Max. 50 % KFV

Max. 20 % KFC

TANGLEI,YAN

LVFANG

Max. 70 %

Max. 30 %

YOULEI,ZHIFANG

ZHANGLIANCHUN

Max. 50 %

Max. 30 %

YOULEI,ZHIFANG

ERJIABEN,JIABEN

Max. 70 %

Max. 30 %

HANLIQINGZHIDEYUANYOU

9. RONGLIANGFAHEKULUNFA

RONGLIANGFA

? JIANGDAICEYANGPINXIANRONGJIEYUWUSHUIJIACHUNZHONG,YONGFEIXIUSHISHIYEDIDING,DANGYANGPINRONGYEZHONGDESHUIFENXIAOHAOWANBI,GUOLIANGDEYONGFEIXIUSHISHIYEKEYIZHISHIZHONGDIAN:YANSEYOUDANHUANG→QIANHONGZONGSE,HUOYONGTINGDIDINGFA。

KULUNFA

KASHIKULUNFACEDINGSHUIFENSHIYIZHONGDIANHUAXUEFANGFA。QIYUANLISHIYIQIDEDIANJIECHIZHONGDEKASHISHIJIDADAOPINGHENGSHIZHURUHANSHUIDEYANGPIN,SHUICANYUDIAN、ERYANGHUALIUDEYANGHUAHAIYUANFANYING,ZAIBIDINGHEJIACHUNCUNZAIDEQINGKUANGXIA,SHENGCHENGQINGDIANSUANBIDINGHEJIAJILIUSUANBIDING,XIAOHAOLEDEDIANZAIYANGJIDIANJIECHANSHENG,CONGERSHIYANGHUAHAIYUANFANYINGBUDUANJINXING,ZHIZHISHUIFENQUANBUHAOJINWEIZHI,YIJUFALADIDIANJIEDINGLV,DIANJIECHANSHENGDIANSHITONGDIANJIESHIHAOYONGDEDIANLIANGCHENGZHENGBILIGUANXIDE,QIFANYINGRUXIA:

H2O+I2+SO2+3C5H5N→2C5H5N·HI+C5H5N·SO3

C5H5N·SO3+CH3OH→C5H5N·HSO4CH3

ZAIDIANJIEGUOCHENGZHONG,DIANJIFANYINGRUXIA:

YANGJI:2I--2e→I2

YINJI:I2+2e→2I-

2H++2e→H2↑

CONGYISHANGFANYINGZHONGKEYIKANCHU,JI1MOERDEDIANYANGHUA1MOERDEERYANGHUALIU,XUYAO1MOERDESHUI。SUOYISHI1MOERDIANYU1MOERSHUIDEDANGLIANGFANYING,JIDIANJIEDIANDEDIANLIANGXIANGDANGYUDIANJIESHUIDEDIANLIANG,DIANJIE1MOERDIANXUYAO2×96493KULUNDIANLIANG,DIANJIE1HAOMOERSHUIXUYAODIANLIANGWEI96493HAOKULUNDIANLIANG。

YANGPINZHONGSHUIFENHANLIANGAN(1)SHIJISUAN:

卡尔费休水分测定仪原理及选择卡尔费休水分测定仪原理及选择

SHIZHONG:W---YANGPINZHONGDESHUIFENHANLIANG,μg;

Q---DIANJIEDIANLIANG,mC;

18---SHUIDEFENZILIANG;

KULUNFADIDINGJI(FEIXIUSHISHIYE)ZHONGSHIBUHANYOUDIANDE,ERSHISHUANGBODIANJIZAIHANDIANLIZIDEYANGJIDIANJIEYEZHONGDIANJIECHANSHENG。DANGSUOYOUDESHUIXIAOHAOWANBI,JIUHUIZAIDIANJISHANGYOUGUOLIANGDEDIANCHANSHENG,YONGTINGDIDINGYIZHISHIZHONGDIANDAODA。

? ZHUYAOYONGYUWEILIANGSHUIFENDECEDING,YINCI,KULUNDIDINGFAZAIYAOPINSHUIFENCEDINGZHONGJIAOSHAOYINGYONG。

SHENMEYANGPINSHIHEYONGKASHILUJINXINGCEDING

ZAIGAOWENXIACAINENGSHIFANGCHUSHUIFENDEYANGPIN,ZAICHANGGUIDEKAERFEIXIUSHIJIZHONGBUNENGRONGJIEDEYANGPIN。 YUKAERFEIXIUSHIJICUNZAIFUFANYING,YAOBIMIANZHIJIEJIECHU,DANZHEIYAOBAOZHENGYANGPINZAIGAOWENXIABUHUIFENJIEHUOSHIFANGCHUNENGYUSHIJIFASHENGFANYINGDEHUAXUEWUZHI。ZAIQIYINGJINLIANGSHIYONGGANZAODEDANQI,YINWEIZAIJIAREDEGUOCHENGZHONG,YOUXIEHUAHEWUKENENGFASHENGYANGHUA。

SHUIFENCEDINGYIXUANXINGZHIDAO

YI、KAERFEIXIUSHUIFENCEDINGYI

1、JIANCEDEYUANZESHI:

(1)FUFANYINGBUNENGYOUSHUISHENGCHENG。

(2)YANGPINYEBUNENGXIAOHAODIANHUOSHIFANGDIAN。

2、RONGLIANGFENXICEDING.JUTIYINGYONGFANWEIZHUYAOYOUJIHEWUJIHUAHEWU。

(1)WUJIHUAHEWU

YOUJISUAN、WUJISUAN 、SUANSHIYANGHUAWU、WUJISUANHESUANGANDENGWUJIHUAHEWU。

(2)YOUJIHUAHEWU

SUAN、CHUN、ZHI、WENDINGDEQIANGJIHUAHEWU、SUOQUAN、MI、TINGSUANGAN、XIANLU、LUHUAWU、GUOYANGHUAHEWU、HANDANHUAHEWU、HANLIUHUAHEWUDENGYOUJIHUAHEWU。

3、KULUNFAYIQIDEJUTIYINGYONGFANWEI

TANQINGHUAHEWU、YOULEI、CHUNLEI、LUDAITINGLEI、FENLEI、ZHILEI、MILEIDENG。

ER、HONGWAIXIAN/LUSUSHUIFENCEDINGYI

1、JIANCEYUANZE:

(1)YANGPINZHONGBUHANYOUCHUSHUIYIWAIDEHUIFAXINGWUZHI

(2)YANGPINZHONGYOUBURONGHUOZHENANRONGYUYOUJIRONGJIZHONGDEYANGPIN

2、WULIFASHUIFENCEDINGYIZHUYAOJIANCE:

FENMOZHUANG、KELIZHUANG、ZHANCHOUZHUANG、LIUTILEIWUZHI,LIRU:ZHONGZI、CAIZI、MIANFEN、ZHIZHANG、YAOMO、TURANG、FEISHUI、YANLIAO、TUOSHUISHUCAIDENG

3、HONGWAIXIANSHUIFENCEDINGYIYULUSUSHUIFENCEDINGYIDEQUBIE:

HONGWAI: JIAREJUNYUN,CHUANTONGJIAREFANGSHI,JIAOSHIHECESHIDUIWENDUMINGANDEYANGPIN,RUHANTANGLIANGJIAOGAODEYANGPIN

LUSU: SHENGWENKUAI,JIAREJUNYUN,XIAOLVGAO,JIENENGHUANBAO

ZONGSHANGSUOSHU:

SHIYONGJIAREFASHUIFENCEDINGYIDEHAOCHUJIUSHICHULEYONGDIAN,BUXUYAOSHIYONGQITADEFUZHUSHIJI,ANZHUANGHECAOZUOYEXIANGDUIJIANDAN,DANSHIJIANCEJIEGUODEZHUNQUEDUHEJIANCEXIAOLVZEBURUKAERFEIXIUFASHUIFENCEDINGYI。

KAERFEIXIUSHUIFENCEDINGYIJUYOUBIJIAREFASHUIFENCEDINGYIGENGJIAKUAIJIE,GENGJIAJINGQUEDEJIANCETEXINGWAI,NENGGOUSHIYONGDEJIANCEFANWEIYEFEICHANGGUANGFAN,BINGQIEYINGGAIGENJUYANGPINSHUIFENHANLIANGHEYANGPINTEXINGXUANZEYINGGAICAIYONGDEKAERFEIXIUSHUIFENCEDINGYILEIXING,DANGYANGPINZHONGSHUIFENHANLIANGXIAOYU0.5%SHI,BINGQIEBUHANSHANGSHUXIANZHIWUZHI,HUOJIANCEQITILEISHUIFENZHIDESHIHOU,YINGYOUXIANXUANZEKULUNFASHUIFENCEDINGYI,BIRUV320XINGZIDONGKAERFEIXIUKULUNCEDINGYI。FOUZEXUANZELEISIS-300XINGRONGLIANGFAQUANZIDONGKAERFEIXIUSHUIFENCEDINGYI。

SAN、GENJUSHANGSHUMIAOSHUDEYANGPINSHUXING,XUANZEHESHIKAERFEIXIUSHUIFENCEDINGYIWULIFASHUIFENCEDINGYI

SI、JINGDUZHI:

GENJUXINGYEYAOQIUDEJIANCEBIAOZHUNHUOZHESHENGCHANYAOQIUYANGPINDADAODESHUIFENZHI,XUANZEHESHIDEJINGDUZHI。

SHUIFENJINGDUZHI:0.1%、0.05%、0.01%、0.001%、0.003%

WU、WENDU(WULIFA):YANGPINBUTONG,YAOQIUDADAODEWENDUZHIYEBUTONG,160-270ZHIJIANKEXUAN。

LIU、GENJUDANWEIYUSUANJIZHAOBIAOYUSUAN,XUANZECHANPIN,YOUXIECHANPINZAIJINGDUZHISHANGXIANGTONG,ZAIJUTIDECAOZUOSHIYONGXINGXINGLVEYOUCHABIE,ZAOCHENGJIAGEDEBUTONG。

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